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˹ѧآ͹-Թ & Ǣͺ!!!

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    Posted: 17 May 2013 at 06:51 - IP: 88.115.84.110 IP Information
آ͹¼ԵѳéѺ
鹩Ѻ - Elintarvikehygienian perusteet, 駷 2
Alkuperäisteos Elintarvikehygienian perusteet, toinen painos, 2009
ISBN 978-67397-2-4

(S)(E)(F)(O)-(k)(o)(n)(s)(u)(l)(t)(o)(i)(n)(t)(i) - Ѵ ԢԷ
Marja Ҥ๹ - ¹
Rachawan µ๹ ja Sari ҹ -
Laura ǹ - º§
Laura ǹ, Ϳ () - ͹ŵ¹, Ҩ ๹ Ky - ٻ
@ Ϳ .͹ŵ¹, tmi ja Ҥ๹
ӹѡҹ - ŵԻ鹵 Oy, Vantaa 2010 Vantaa

.͹حҵ˹¹Ф


Edited by United - 18 May 2013 at 02:27
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úѭ


Ǫҭҹآ͹¼Եѳ
1. آ͹

2. СäǺͧ˹ҷ
2.1
2.2 ʶҹСͺ
2.3 äǺͧ˹ҷ
2.4 Ѵöҹآ͹

3. ѹС§ͧԵѳ
3.1 觢ͧû͹
3.2 ûͧѹѹ´ҹҾ
3.3 äǺš
3.4 äǺѵ

4. ͨԹ
4.1 ҴЪԴͧͨԹ
4.2 ӹǹͧͨԹ
4.3 ͧСͺͧӹǹͧͨԹ
   4.3.1
   4.3.2
   4.3.3 س
   4.3.4 繡ô-ҧ
   4.3.5 ͡ਹ
4.4 ä繾
4.5 Ấµҧ 繾
4.6 ʷ繾
4.7 ⷫоҸԷ繾

5. آѡɳТͧѡҹ
5.1 ûͧѹäԴͼҹҧԵѳ
5.2 觡¢ͧѡҹ
5.3 آѡɳТͧ

6. ÷ӤҴСæ
6.1 Ἱ÷ӤҴ
6.2 ҧҪ
6.3 鹵͹ͧ÷ӤҴ
6.4 Ѵͧҵ pH
6.5 ػóӤҴ
6.6 æ
6.7 ûԹŤҴ
6.8 áӨѴͧ

7. ûاԵѳ
7.1 ÷դ§٧мԵѳ
7.2 ͧͺèؼԵѳ
7.3 â Ѻ С纼Եѳ
7.4 Եѳ
7.5 ûاԵѳ¤͹
7.6 â Сè˹¢ͧ

8. äǺ
8.1 äǺؤ繢͡˹ҧ
8.2 ἹäǺ
8.3 ԧ˹ѧҧԧ





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 01:33
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Ǫҭҹآ͹¼Եѳ

㹻ȿԹŹѺԡèҡصˡ Ҵмӹҭҹ㹤ʹ Сͺ繼Ǫҭ 觷ӧҹ㹷ػó·öѡǧصˡ㹿ԹŹ ͡ѹѺҴͧǢҴ˭ ѲҹҹǼżԵ §ҹͧʹ ҧ鹨ӹǹʶԵԢͧä繾˵ǹ˹觤 ʶԵҧ´СþѲԸաä ¹ŧҧ

    - Ѻ͹ͧǧôҹзҧ
    - ùҢͧѵشԺդ§٧ҡҧ
    - 鹢ͧ÷ͧ
    - ѡмٻèԸյҧ
    - żԵҡлҡٻ ѡѡͧ èԸյҧ
    - żԵ 秷ºҧ еѴ繪
    - ѹ ӵáѹٴŧ
    - ¹ǧҢͧûاС


觷ҹ¡ͧ觤ѺԴͺѴਹҧСͺҧ ФǪҭҹآ͹·Ѻاѹ¢ͧСͺ÷ء

ӹǹͧТͨӡѴҹõ駢¡ͧ㹡÷ἹФ´ͧûا ӧҹҹԵѳä ؤŷ㹵˹觷Ӥѭҡ㹡ôآҾͧⵤСҧСóѺзҹ ¡ͧǪҭ㹴ҹآ͹ 駾٨դӹҭ㹴ҹ ˵ؼŷ˵㹻Ѩغѹ ˹ѧЪ㹡ûѺاѹ㹴ҹآ͹ ¡㹡ͺѴҹآ͹ ͸Ժ¤ӤѭͧҹШ㹡äǺ ѧҨʹѺʹعҢŴҹآ͹·ͧ㹧ҹͧͧ ѧҷءѺʺó㹡¹㹡ͺ

Marja Ҥ๹
Ϳ () - ͹ŵ¹


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1.آ͹

آ͹¤ԸաûԺѵԷءҧ 觪Դ㹤һʹ 繻ªҧФҴͧԵѳõüԵ㹢鹵鹶֧ дѺ֧ (ͧ͹š WHO)

آ͹¤ ԸաûѵͧСͺͧ㹡äǺ§ǡѺԵѳ 繷ѺѺúͧ (Ҫѭѵآ͹âͧҤû: EU)

¢ͧآ͹ä ͧѹҡ§ҹآҾɰԨԴҡԵѳ÷繷ѺѺͧ

آ͹

    1. ͧѹû͹§آҾԵѳ û͹ҹѹ·ҧҾ Ҿ зҧҾ (ѵ š)
    2. ŧӹǹͧԹͷ¨Թ


Ӷǹ

    1. آ͹¤?
    2. ͧԸ੾дҹآ͹?
    3. Ըآ͹㹴ҹԵѳҧɵá?



ҹ§ ѡѧѡ ѹ͹ŧ仵 ֧ҧ駪Եͧá˹ ·ѡ¹ŧ
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2. СäǺͧ˹ҷ

2.1. ͡


ࢵЪû äǺԸա͹ҨҡºͧҾû 觻ҪԡءȤǺ¡¢ͧȹСº 㹻ȿԹŹ졮 оҪѭѵФ觢ͧ˹ҷ зǡѺʹ¢ͧԵѳ

ºӤѭͧҾû

    1. Ҫѭѵ÷ (ЪҤû 178/2002)
    2. ҪѭѵԢͧآ͹ (ЪҤû 852/2004)


âͧԹŹ (23/2006) ǢͧѺԵѳ÷ءԴ мСͺԨôҹ÷ء ʹõ֧ ¹ͺ֧â觨ҡѷ˹աѷ˹ 駡üԵ è˹ й¹͡ 㹸áԨ ˭ ͡Ԩ÷§ѹ

¢ͧ

    - ҧ㨵ͤʹ¢ͧԵѳСûا
    - ҧ㨵ͤسҾآ͹·ФسҾºҧ
    - ҧҢǡѺԵѳ繤ԧբ§ 㨼ԴǡѺԵѳ
    - ͧѹǡѺ§ҹآҾҨҡԵѳӵº лͧѹ´ҹɰԨ
    - ҧ㨵͡ͺ͹ѺͧԵѳ
    - ѺСѹäǺͧԵѳ÷ҵҰҹ٧
    - ͧСͺͧСͺԨôҹôբ


úѧѺСͺԨôҹ÷ӧҹҧѴѧ ͼԵѳ繷ѺѺúͧ зӵ觷ǢͧѺԵѳ ͧäԴС§آҾ աûͧѹѹµآҾ 駷ѹյ˹ҷǺآ͹ ҷҸóآԷáѺԨ÷ѹµآҾ СͺԨôҹõͧлԺѵԵἹäǺ ( 8) Ҫѭѵ蹷鹡Ѻ¡˹ҧ´ǡѺͧСͺͧ üԵ â ӻл è˹¼Եѳù͡ʶҹ зѴҹҧ 駵˹ҷʧä繾ԴСõǨآҾͧѡҹ

ҪѭѵԷ鹡Ѻá˹Ǣͧ

    - ʶҹСͺ
    - â
    - ҡԴѺèѳ
    -
    -
    - š㹼Եѳ ʴغèѳ





Edited by United - 17 May 2013 at 07:25
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2.2 ʶҹСͺ

оҪѭѵ ҹá˹ ԵѳöԵ ѡ âСè˹ʶҹҧ?
ͺ ͹Ԩ顮 ʶҹСͺõͧѺԹẺ͸ԺǡѺʶҹ ػóҧ Ө÷ԴҨзӵҧἹ ͡ԹҷзСäǺ ˹ҷö˹ͺࢵԨ÷ҧἹз ҡͧСͺҹʹ¢ͧ§

ʶҹСͺä

    - ӧҹСѡ§
    - кҡ س ʧҧҵҰҹ
    - շҧ ҧҪػó§
    - շ纹ػóӤҴ
    - չ§͵ҵҰҹͧӻл
    - ͧ¹ͼҢͧѡҹͧзҧ§
    - ͧѺѡҹ§ 觤ҧҡͧاþ
    - ͧ١ػóͧ§


çҧѧ ػóͧʶҹСͺͧѡ ͧ ػóҪз㹡üԵ͡ûا öӤҴ жҨ繵ͧҦ šҡҹ ʶҹСͺѺdzʶҹҧ ͡Ԩ繡úǹ͹ҹ աҹ˹觡Ԩҧ蹨ѹµͤʹ¢ͧ 鹢ͧʶҹСͺõͧշк¹ӷԴѺкá ͧҧҧ١º 鹵ͧҴ§֧к¹ ͡˹ҹǡѺâ¼Եѳ͡ʶҹ зѴҹҧ



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2.3. äǺͧ˹ҷ

شʧͧäǺԵѳä ͧѹʹ´ҹ зӵ·ǢͧѺԵѳ ԸդǺ 礵Ǩҹ ҧ õǨآҾͧѡҹ õǨúѹ֡§ҹ͡õҧ 駡õǨͧäǺ㹡Ԩõҧ СäǺԵѳâͧ˹ҷըشѹͨسҾФʹ·բͧԵѳ 㹡ûԺѵ˹ҷȺѺԴͺǡѺäǺԵѳ÷Ե ˹ ࢵȺŹ鹪ͤС÷ѺԴͺǡѺäǺԵѳ ͹͵ҧ дѺԨõҧ äǺлԺѵ¼Ǩآ͹·ͧ

ҴҾûʹ¢ͧżԵǹ˭Ǻ˹ҷҸóآࢵԵ

żԵԵ͡ҾûФǺࢵᴹзǧɵлѺԴͺǡѺþѲҡ͡´ҹ ӹѡҹС (㹿ԹŹ EVIRA) 繼 ἹþѲдšäǺͧԵѳ äǺѵطʡѺԵѳ úС÷Ǣͧӹѧҹ÷ͧ ѺԴͺ㹡ùӡäǺԵѳࢵ Ъ駢ҧ˹ҷͧ蹡Ѻӹѡҹ÷ͧ

˹ҷšҡäǺԹҼԵѳ÷Ҩҡ͡ࢵҾû ԵѳèҡѵҨҡ͡ࢵҾûеǨ礡͹šҡ

äǺͧԵѳèҡѵࢵҾû 繡͡ѹпҧѷҡѺӹѡҹС (EVIRA) Եѳ ö͡ҧࢵҾû





Edited by United - 17 May 2013 at 07:23
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2.4. Ѵöҹآ͹

¢ͧöҹآ͹ҧк ûͧѹ繾 ѡҹӧҹʶҹСͺ÷اԵѳ÷դ§٧ͧդ鹰ҹ§ǡѺ´ҹآ͹¼Եѳ ŪҾ ä繾 ԸշӤҴ СäǺ ( 23/2006 С䢡 1137/2008) СͺõͧҾѡҹӧҹʶҹСͺлاԵѳ÷դ§٧ͧѺͧöҹآ͹

ͺ
ѡҹاԵѳ÷ѧèطդ§٧ ʴûԺѵآ͹·¼ҹͺѴöҹآ͹ ҹͺѺ㺻СкѵäС ѹب¹ҹѧͧѵ ͺѧѺǡѺᤪ (Թ) ͤٻǡѺ˹ҷӧҹͧʶҺѹҧ

ͺ
Ѵͺ͡㺻С Ѻ͹حҵҡӹѡҹС (EVIRA) 繼Ѵաͺ ͺͧԹ ͺ 45 ҷ еͧͧͺҧ·ش 20 ҷ 㹡ͺբͺ 40 еͧͺ١ҧ 34 ͢ ء駢ͺҨҡǹҧ ըӹǹҳ 1,000 ͧ͢ͺ ẺͺءشФͺ 7 ǢͷǢҧ ѴͺѺӵͺ١ͧ ͵ǨͺҡкͧӹѡҹС (EVIRA)


www.hygos.fi
ǡѺͺмѡͺ СͺԪҪվҧ Ǻͺҹآ͹·§ www.hygos.fi բŷö¹µͧ㹡ͺ յҧẺͺ駤¢ͺ

Ӷǹ

    1. աúҧ˹üԵԹСԨõҧ 㹷ӧҹͧس?
    2. ǢͧѺԨẺ˹?
    3. ǹҧ͡˹㹡ǡѺʶҹСͺ Ѻѡҹзѡ㹷ӧҹͧس
    4. ˹ҷСԨôҹʹ㹷ӧҹͧس?
    5. ǹͺ½֡ѴӢͺ㹵ҧͺ





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 03:06
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3. ѹС§ͧԵѳ

˵طѹµآҾ       
          1. ҹҾ     
          2. ҹҾ     
          3. ҹŪҾ    

§¤ ҹҨѹԴ ռըҡѹ¹   

1. ѹ´ҹҾ      
- շշԴ鹨ҡҵԷ赡ҧ ѡҡûا (ж)     
- շԹҷ˹㹢鹵͹ͧԵѳ (Ҧŧ, )     
- շ (ҾǴ, һԪǹеҧѵ, ѹ)     
- շ÷Դ á    

2. ѹ´ҹҾ¡ šѧࡵ»ҷ , , , Թ, 鹼, д ;ʵԡ   

3. ѹ´ҹŪҾ ԹԵѳШԹԴäҹԵѳ йӴ ѵ㹼Եѳѵúǹ ö͹㹼Եѳ¼ҹ§ءԴ   äǺ (BSE=Bovine spongiform encephalopathy) 龺 2-3 㹿ԹŹ ˵آͧä ¹ٻͧõչ͹ͧ͢鹻ҷ öԴäѺзҹͧ͢ѵҹ ͧѹѧͧѵ   

û͹¤ 觷ѹԵѳ   

û͹Եѳ¤ ҡԵѳ˹Եѳ˹ û͹ͧʹԺ ѡԺ軹͹Թҹ   

û͹ѧûا¤ û͹ͧżԵҹ͹ ͷء ͹ҡػóاʹԺ



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3.1. 觢ͧû͹

Եѳö͹ء鹵͹ͧǧèҡ֧ ШҡءҧҾǴͺ ¡: ʶҹ, ҡ, ѵشԺ, , Ҫ, úè, ͧѡ


3.2. ûͧѹѹ´ҹҾ

ѵشԺԵѳѹ´ҹҾԴͧ㹸ҵԷ Фѧࡵ㹡ûاѵشԺ ͻͧѹ繾

    - þ (solanine) ѹ; ѹ
    - þ (gyromitrine) öӨѴ¡õͧ㹹Өӹǹҡ
    - þ (lectine) 㹶ʧ ӨѴ㹹, ҧзء§
    - þ (histamine) Դ㹻ҷٹ, ҫҺл觷

ҺҧԴҧþ (mycotoxin) Եѳ÷ þɨШ㹼Եѳ ҹ㹼Եѳ鹷 ö¤͹ ẤºҧԴҧþɷռŵ繾͹

ä շ , áѹٴ, Ŵô, չӵ, 㹡ͧèҹͧ¹ '''' ʹШӹǹǺ¾Ҫѭѵ ǹСͺ㹡ͧèصͧǡѺѵشԺ ԵѵشԺռŵͤäҨըӹǹ硹

÷軹͹ Ҧŧ, , ҷ赡ҧ÷ 㹾Ҫѭѵ˹ҳ੾з ·˵ط繷ѺѺúͧ úҧԴͧջҳӡѴ㹡ͧԵѳ÷դ§٧ ҷѹҡ㹷źŵԡ 㹡÷ӤҴҪо鹼˹觵ҧ ʡѺäҷ㹹ӷѺҪҹ੾ öҧ͡ҡ鹼ҧҴ ö෶֧Եѳèҡè ѵ蹷 Ҫ, ͧѡ, ¾ҹ, ا, ͧͧ Щй㹡ûاԵѳõͧػóѺԵѳ ѭѡɳٻҾͧЪ͹ ͩҡ ͤй ੾СѺԵѳ (elintarvikekäyttöön) Ӻй秷㹼ԵѳõͧҵðҹҹҾЪҾ

Ӷǹ
1. سԴҧǡѺҧ仹:
áлͧ ͹ҡӡ͡ áлͧԴͧ红ͧ ҹ




3.3 äǺš

㹡üԵͧԵѳçҹصˡ ͧªԴͻͧѹСӨѴš

    ͧӺѧ, ç͹ ͧͧ
    ͧѴ˹ѡ
     ͧػóǨзԴ駡Ѻ¾ҹ
    俷ͧʧҹèͷ öǨ礴µ
    ͧ͹ѺѵҧҷҧӺ¾ҹ

ԸӤѭشͧûͧѹšêǧûاä Ѵѧҧ´㹢зӧҹ ѧࡵ»ҷ Ҵ º ͧҪ ʶҹҾСҹ 纼Եѳ⡴ѧͧҾѺԹ㹪ҧͧ

Ӷǹ

1. ҧ駤سš㹼Եѳâͧس? ѹ? 㹼Եѳҧ?

2. سԴҧáѺҧ仹:

3. ѡ§Ӵ Դŷ ÷͹   ŧҧ͡?




3.4 äǺѵ

ͧآ͹ ѵ仹 ѵѵúǹ

    - ŧ׺ѹ㹼Եѳ ʹ ͢⾴
    - ѵ ŧҺ ŧա ŧҧ
    - ŧ¹͡ ŧѹ
    - Ш͡ Һ ҧ
    - ѵѴ ˹
    - ѵúǹ

żԵҡת мҨ ͹ŧա Ѻŧҹ

Ӥѭ㹡ûͧѹ׺ѹͧѵҹ

    - ԹҷѺд⡴ѧ红ͧաкҡȷ
    - سԵӡ +18
    - 纼ԵѳԹ㹪ҧͧ躹
    - ʶҹҴº
    - ع¹ͧԹҧ١ͧ к纼Եѳͨ˹·¡ First-in-First-out Ե͹仨˹¡͹
    - ع¹ͧԹҧǴ

ǧêԵͧ͢⾴ = => ͹ =>   ѡ =>

Ҿû͹ҹŧõǨҡû͹դҧҧǴ ͹´ҹǴͧͨйӼżԵ黹͹ж١Ѵѧҡ ѵ㹤 ŧһ ŧաŧҧ Ǻ¡ôŤҴФºǡѹ ÷ӤҴзк¹ ѧࡵѵաŧҺʶҹ㹤õԴ˹ҷǪҭҹáӨѴŧ੾ ¹͡ʶҹСͺúҧ駺ҧҹ

ԸӤѭ㹡ûͧѹѵҹ ¡ѡҤҴФº ÷駢зءѹҡСͺСûԴе˹ҵҧ յç㹷к¹ ûͧѹŧԹҤõԴʹ俴ѡŧ

ԸӤѭ㹡ûͧѹѵúǹ ˹й ôѡʶҹ Դٵ˹ҵҧеç㹷к¹СáӨѴҧջԷҾ 㹡ûͧѹѵѴйâͤͨҡ˹ҷǪҭҹáӨѴѵúǹ

ҧ ֧ѵ§ùʶҹСͺ Ңͧҹö͹حҵ ͹حҵͧ͹حҵʹ ͧԴ˭ ͡ҧѴਹ


ҷԡ: ¡鹺dz¹͡繷عѢԡ÷ӾЪͤԡʶҹdzͧ١ ҹ੾ͧ




Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 02:59
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4. Թ

4.1. ҴЪԴͧԹ


Թеöͧµ ҴͧẤ»ҳ 0.001 Ấʹҧ

觡ЪԴͧԹ

    - Ấ
    - (ʵ)
    -
    - ⷫ


Թ쾺ҡ㹴Թ ѵ нͧ ǡѹ㹼ԵѳáըԹ ҧԴռ ҧԴռŵͼԵѳ÷ кҧԴռŷԴä ԹءդӤѭջªͼԵѳ

¶֧ 觫ըԹժԵ ¸ҵԨ




4.2. ӹǹͧԹ


Ấӹǹ¡÷դسͧзӹ Ấö觵ǪФ Ф駨ӹǹͧẤ¨зդٳ 觵ǪФ ӹǹẤ觵繾ѹԺ ẤºҧԴդö¹ٻҧ㹡ҧʻ 觷зӹ Ф͹пѡԸӹǹ ʻԭẤ·öӹǹաззس¹ŧҧѹշѹ ẤºҧԴӹǹռŵ͡ҧþɷ͡Թ þɷö㹤͹ ùӼԵѳ͹Ấ·ӹǹ ÷ʻͧẤµͧԸշӤ͹٧㹡÷·



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4.3 ͧСͺͧӹǹͧԹ

öա§价Թ㹼Եѳ Щй鹡èѴǹСͺԸջاè֧Ӥѭ ͻͧѹзӹǹͧԹŧ öǺӹǹͧСͺ仹

    -
    -
    - س
    - 繡ô-ҧ
    - ӹǹ͡ਹ

ԹЪԴ¡ͧǴᵡҧѹ   Ǵǹ㴢Ҵ ҧŨҡǴ ӹǹԹŧҧӤѭӹǹ ÷Թö͡ҡԵѳ Ф, ӹǹ͡ਹ Ф繡ô-ҧ öǺ㹺ҧóҹ ¡äǺͧСͺҹöͧԵѳôբ״ͤسҷҧâͧѵشԺзҹ ûͧѹСӹǹͧԹɪŧ ¡äǺͧСͺͧСͺǡѹ ѨӤѭ ûاҴ ÷ӹǹԹŴŧ¤͹ ҧԴԴ㹤ҧͧ¤駷ͧСͺҹҹռŵ͡ûاͧԵѳä Ҵ, س з


4.3.1
Եѳǹ˭ѺԹءԴ âͧԹ͡ҡҹ ¡÷ӤҴҪ, ػó-, ͧا ͧ


4.3.2
ԹءԴͧä㹡ӹǹ¶֧ ҳзԹ Ѵ Water Activity (aw,.) ÷㹹 йӵŴ֧ҳ㹵Ǣͧѹ ԸչҳзԹŴŧ Թöӹǹ㹼Եѳջҳҡ ӵŷջҳҡ ҵͧùӹ·ش Ấ Ժ ᷿Ťʤ öӹǹǴҡԹ   ੾ʻ췹зҹ   öӹǹաз


4.3.3 س
ԹءԴдѺسԷ͡ӹǹǷش Ấ 3 дѺسԷͧӹǹẤ·͹ 㹸ҵ Ӿ͹ 繵 Ấ·ҧʻöӹǹ੾ѧҡӤ͹س٧


سԷͧẤ·ԴäԴ §ѺسԢͧѵʹҧ¤öӹǹдѺس +20 - +45 ͧ ẤҹҾǴԵͧѵ ˹ѧдԹ


Ấ·¤ 跹㹤 дѺسԷ سͧ öӹǹس繴 Ấҹ龺㹸Ե 㹴Թ, 觹, ͧ ͫ Ấ·繾 ӹǹ 0 ͧҢ ԸշӤѭشͧ÷ŧСûͧѹӹǹͧԹ㹼Եѳä س٧е§ ա§红ͧԵѳ÷դ§٧ س +6 - +60 ͧ ǧسԹ¡ࢵѹ ѺԵѳ÷դ§٧ سԵ㹡öѡҷӹǹͧԹŧѹҧ ÷С㹵 Թӹǹ١ §ҴͧԹ繻ªѡж١¤ͺẺͺẺ ÷͹§ͷ¨Թ


4.3.4 繡ô-ҧ
繡ô-ҧͧѴдѺҾͪ (pH) 1-14 ͪ繡ҧ 7 дѺҢͧͪӡ 7 繡ô٧ жҡ 7 繴ҧ٧ ѵشԺҡѵ , ʴ, , мѡҧ õҧ դ繡ҧ Щйҹ㹡ӹǹͧԹءԴ ẤӹǹշشдѺͪ 6-8   ӹǹͧẤǹ˭ŧлͧѹդ繡ô٧ ẤºҧԴҹӹǹдѺͪ 4-5 9-11 дѺͪӡ 4 Ấöӹǹ ûͧѹ͡÷ӧҹͧԹ㹼ԵѳªԴŧ¡ô ª ôй ǡѹ ÷ӹ繹 ¡Ấ¡ô ҢͧͪͧŴŧҡ繡ҧ֧ҧ 4-5 ʵöӹǹ㹺dz繡ô-ҧ ҧẤ 㹼

Թӹǹ
ͪ   
14     Ӵҧ
13
12     ͧҧҹ
11     ⫴
10     ͢ǷӴҧ
9      ʴ
8      ʴ, 繡ҧ
7      
6      , ء
5      ,
4      ѧ,
3      
2      й, 㹡
1      ô


- Ấ·繾ªԴöӹǹͺèẺ٭ҡ÷èش¡ҫ

- ͡ () öسͧ

- Ҿͪӡ 4 Ấöӹǹ

- 繡͹繪˭Ấº˹

- ÷èش٭ҡͧ͡èشʤ㹵繵ʹ ѡѹ





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 03:08
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4.3.5 ͡ਹ

ԹªԴͧ͡ਹ㹡ӹǹ ӹǹ੾о鹼ǢͧǡѺʵӹǹǴ͡ਹ Ǵ͡ਹʵмԵӵšš㹡ûѺاԵѳûշҹӼԵѳ Ѻҹ»ա ͧǢҴ˭ Եѳҹվ鹼ǪҡԹ ռŵ͡ӹǹͧͨԹ Եѳҹ ͻлءдԺ ѡ 繪 ٴ 繵 ӹǹԹ 1 ҡǡ㹼ѡ繵繪 ͨԹªԴѺǴӹǹ͡ਹ¹ŧкҧԴͧ͡ਹ§硹¡§ Ấ·繾ªԴ ҫ ӹǹз͡ਹ Ấ¢ͧʷӹǹз͡ਹҹ úèô٭ҡ úè¡ҡ͡͡ਹ١Ѻ͡͹ѹ úèءҫ ͡͹ҫ᷹ǹСͺǹ˭ͧҡȻԸաҹ»ͧѹӹǹԹͧ͡ਹҧջԷҾ зöѡ੾мԵѳл Ấ·繾ɷ跹Ǵ͡ਹըӹǹöӹǹ㹡ͧèش٭ҡСͧèءҫ Щй鹼Եѳҹ㹤




4.4 ä繾

ä繾¤äԴ͡ѺҧѺѹ ҹ͹Ӵ ʶԵԢͧä繾û´¨ԹþɷѹԵҹûҧѺѹҡԵѳ ÷͡Թ ŤԹ㹶 ͡ǢͧʵԹ͡Թ㹻ҷٹ ä繾ǹ˭㹼˭آҾ 㹡§ҡ¨ҹҹäçҡҹ ء͹ç¹ ˭ԧ駤 §١¹Ф·Եҹҹ ûا١ͧ˵ءó仹Դä繾·令

    - §
    - §
    - س㹡â
    - 㹪ǧسࢵѹ
    - ѵشԺ͹ӷ軹͹
    - û͹, û͹ѧûا
    - ѡҹاû

ä繾ɷԴͼҹ û͹ӷʡáҡǹԹҴ 㹪ǧӷ͡ѡҹҴçҹ§

кҴͧä繾¤ ˵ءó·ش 2 Ѻäǡѹ ѧҡԹʹ͹ѹ ʧ¤˹觨л´ä⺷ԫҨҡʷ⺷ͧǨ˵آͧкҴ

÷ҧʧ繾 ʧԴä繾 ԹôҹԵѳõͧͧ˹ҷǺآ͹¢ͧͷѹ ѧҡ˹ҷͧ˹ҷҹШѴ觷ʧ ͺࢵе˵آͧä繾 й йӡǡѺͧ ԹõͧԴйӢͧ˹ҷ ѧҡ駵˹ҷ ǴǢѺҼا / ͤ纵ҧ÷訴ѹ֡ءѹ㹵 ͨШѴ˵آͧä繾 ǡѺäкҴͧ繾ʶԵ㹿ԹŹ 1975 кõԴС駢ͧ繾Ѻا㹻 1997 ҧ͹ ˹ҷǺآ͹¢ͧӤѭҡ㹡红СèѴä繾 ÷ӧҹͧ˹ҷҹѺʹѺʹع ͧüǪҭͧ

ҪѭѵäԴ
·仢ͧäԴѹ¤ ūԷ ūԷ õԴͨҡ EHEC λ䵵 A ͫդ⹤ʹ⤫ äԴͷͧ駵˹ҷҸóآѧǹǢͧѺµҧ äԴѹ·Դ鹡Ѻѡҹкѷ ûͧѹ˵آͧ繾ԵѳСûͧѹӹǹͧѹä õ繾





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 01:07
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4.5 Ấµҧ 繾

ͧѹ ҧʻ Ấ
Ấ:
᷿Ťʹ

觷辺, ѡɳ:
㹼˹ѧͧ͢ѵ Եþ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
û͹ѧûا÷͹
лؿ
ҹþë

ûͧѹ:
ҧҴ ÷͹
÷͹ҧջԷҾҧͧ


Ấ:
ҫ


觷辺, ѡɳ:
㹴Թ Ź
ҧʻԵþ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
, , ͧ, , , , , ѡ
͹ҧ
èӹǹҡ, ù

ûͧѹ:
͹ С÷͹ҧջԷҾ
ҧͧ
عաҧջԷҾ


Ấ:
ʷԹਹ

觷辺, ѡɳ:
㹴Թ,
ҧʻ
Եþ
͡ਹ +10 - +54 ͧ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ءè٭ҡ кèءҫ
ѹ
÷Өҡ
÷͹͡÷͹§
èӹǹҡ,

ûͧѹ:
͹С÷ҧջԷҾ
ҧͧ
عաҧջԷҾ


Ấ:
ʷ
⺷Ź

觷辺, ѡɳ:
㹴Թ, 㹹, , Ӽ
ҧʻ
ҧþ⺷Թ ռŵкҷ
Ե, ͡ਹ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ѹè٭ҡ
÷Өҡ
÷͹͡÷͹§
ū§
èӹǹҡ

ûͧѹ:
͹ С÷͹ҧջԷҾ
ҧͧ
աҧջԷҾ




ִѡآ͹¢ͧš ǧʵö§֧ҡȨ˹§͡ ûاõͧاͧԴ ռѧԴͺءҹѧһԴҹ աкҡȷ ִԴСûا÷ҹͧͧ й͡ͺͧԴҾ觤繨ԧçҹ

ҧʻþ

Ấ:
(Թ)

觷辺, ѡɳ:
ѵա
ӷ軹͹Ѻب

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:

ԵѳҨҡѵ
żԵ١آ͹

ûͧѹ:
͹ҡ +70 ͧ
ѵաҡ +75 ͧ
кǺ㹻


Ấ:
Ấ (Թ)

觷辺, ѡɳ:
ͧѵ ѵա
Өҡҵ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ʡá
ѵաء§
û͹

ûͧѹ:
͹ҡ +70 ͧ
ѵաҡ +75 ͧ


Ấ:
Ấ (͹Ψԡ 0157:H7)

觷辺, ѡɳ:
ͧѵͧ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ҹþë
ͺش§

ûͧѹ:
͹ҡ +75 ͧ


Ấ:
Ǩչ

觷辺, ѡɳ:
㹴Թ, ,
ӹǹسԵ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ҹþë
秷Өҡҹþë
û͹ѧûا
è٭ҡСҫ
ѡ

ûͧѹ:
͹ҡ +70 ͧ
ѵա +75 ͧ


Ấ:
ẤЫԹ

觷辺, ѡɳ:
Ӥ Թ Ź
ӹǹسԵ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ԵѳӨҡѵ
ѡѴʴ

ûͧѹ:
͹ҡ +70 ͧ


Ấ:
Ժ

觷辺, ѡɳ:
ӷ÷㹻͹

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
÷ŴԺ

ûͧѹ:
繵ͧͧ÷
͹ҡ +70 ͧ


Ấ:


觷辺, ѡɳ:
ͧԧ

Եѳ÷դ§٧ ˵:
ӷ軹͹Ѻب
Դͨҡͧ͢ǹä

ûͧѹ:
͹ҡ +70 ͧ
ا١آ͹





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 00:42
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4.6 ʷ繾

Եѳйӻл ö繵ǹӢͧӹǹ㹼Եѳ ӹǹժԵ ͷӡѧվӹǹͧ ѹöѡԵ з ʷ˵Ӥѭͧäͧ·ԴͼҹԵѳ


    - ʡԡ
    - Ѿ䷷ ʵѺѡʺ
    -

觸ҵԢͧҹͧ äҹöԴͤµçͼҹ ˵آͧ繾ɺ¤駤 ӷ軹͹ҡب㹡ôҧѡ ӻлҷ軹͹Ѻ ÷ŷӷū੾¹ҧ ÷§͡ԹԺ͡÷§ ԸշӤѭش㹡ûͧѹ ҧ١آ͹С÷͹ҧ§ ûԺѵԵйӤ ÷÷§͹ҡ +90 ͧҧ·ش 2 ҷ




4.7 ⷫоҸԷ繾

Ե ѵ躹 ҧͧժԵ ⷫ öԴͤҹ öӹǹ ͧҡäҧʴҡ ѹöҿѡǷҡ ҡ͡׺˵طǢͧҧԵѳäҹ


ͧä繾ɷԴҡⷫ

    - Toksplasma gondii; بТͧ ʡá ͷاء
    - Cryptosporidium parvum; ʡá
    - Giardia duodenalis; ʡá Ե繾ǴẺѺͧѹ
    - ҸԵǵ״ (Diphyllobotrium latum); ҹӨ״Թѵ
    - ҸԵẹ (Echinococcus); ѵ
    - ҸԵǨ (Trichinella spiralis); ٻ ѵ (㹿ԹŹշءǨмҹõǨ ͷҨҡҵͧҹõǨ͹˹)
    - Anisakis marina; 㹷Źԡ ͹ ҫҺлҷ㹷֡ ( 5 ѹ)

ǹ˭اе͹ͧԵж١㹡 (2-3 ѹ -20 ͧ) 㹡÷͹ҧ§ 2 ҷҡ +90 ͧ ÷ӹӻлҴҧջԷҾçлǹӤѭ㹡ûͧѹԵⷫ



Ӷǹ

    1. ѵشԺͼԵѳ?
    2. +6 - +60 ͧ ࢵѹ?
    3. ·¡ͧ纵ӡ +6 ͧ?
    4. غТǫ٫ ͧ͹繷ѹ?
    5. ͺ ǡ繪 (繡͹˭)?
    6. äͤ§ͧԹҷè٭ҡСҫ?
    7. ÷ŷè٭ҡСҫͧ㹤ҡ?
    8. آ͹֧ͨӤѭҡ?


- Ấ·繾ªԴöӹǹͺèẺ٭ҡ÷èش¡ҫ

- ÷ҹ ըԹ

- 繡͹繪˭Ấº˹

- ÷èش٭ҡͧ͡èشʤ㹵繵ʹ ѡѹ

- ä繾 ԴҡõԴ ѺҧѺѹ

- Mikrobit = Mikrobien lisääntymisedellytykset hapen määrä = aerobi - anaerobi

- => ҹ => ҹ ١ (Ҩ觼ŵ͡ä繾)





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 00:59
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5. آѡɳТͧѡҹ‏

5.1 ûͧѹäԴͼҹҧԵѳ


¢ͧäԴ ˹ҼСͺҪվǹ㹡õǨآҾ¤ þҨ繾йäԴѹлͧѹͧäҹ ؤŷҷҺʧ繾йäԴͼҹԵѳͷպҴѡʺ, ˹ѧѡʺ ˹ѧѺҴ ÷ӧҹʶҹСͺ, ҺؤŹöäҹԵѳ

õǨآҾͧѡҹҷӧҹСͺ¡ɳͧҧҺᾷ, йǡѺآҾжҨ繤õǨ
õǨآҾ 繵ͧѺѡҹСͺ÷ѧèطդ§٧ ФҴҨзӧҹҧ 1 ͹ ѧҡԹҧҧȹ͡᡹ҡ 4 ѹ ͧǨبейӢͧӧҹ ҡǧԹҧѧԹҧԴͧ 蹷ǡѺä繾 ѡҹûСͺԵѳ÷ѧèطդ§٧ ͹ŵǨ

آѡɳзջСͺ:

    - ա§
    - ͧҪػó
    - Ҫ㹡ê
    - ҧἹ鹵͹ͧسԪǧѹ õŧѺ觢ͧ ͧ˹駵;ѡҹҢͧҶ֧ҧ?
    - ͧмͨ١ ҧӧҹͧҧѧҡ紹١
    - ŧ㹼Եѳ
    - ٺʶҹСͺ
    - ͧҹѺѡҹ੾

آ͹ǹؤ
ͧآѡɳآҾǹҧ ¡÷ӤҴ¹ش㹷ءѹ




5.2 觡¢ͧѡҹ

ͻСͺԵѳ÷ѧè ѡҹͧժشӧҹҴѺӧҹ੾ ҹö觪شӧҹҡҹ֧ӧҹ شӧҹͧҴ зӴ¼ҷѡҤҴ շ繤ʡá شӧҹͧСͺäëѡçѡҷաõԴŤҴ ǹ˹觢ͧشӧҹͧ㹷ӧҹӤҴ ͧյ¡Ѻͼҷ㹷ӧҹѺͼҷҧ͡ ͻا÷ѧèؤǡ ¡鹡 ǡͧѹ, Թѧᤵҡ˹ѧ ҪᢡѺ͹حҵʶҹСͺä: ǡ, ͤͧҤ ǹҵԴͻШ 觢ͧЪҧͧͧй㹡ûԺѵ


Ӷǹ

    1. Ըúҧ㹧ҹûСͺ÷餹蹵Դä?
    2. سѺйǡѺԹҧ仵ҧҧ?
    3. 㹧ҹСͺõͧشӧҹͧӧҹ੾
    4. 仹ö㹢лСͺ: ¤ͧ, ع, ŷѡʺ, ⴪, ǹ觧ҹ, ԡ, ҷẺͺ, ا;ʵԡ, ͧдѺе˹ѧ?




5.3 آɳТͧ

˹ѧͧ͢ا÷ѧèصͧآѡɳз ˹ͧѡʺ˹ѧ



1. ѡҼ˹ѧͧҧշöͧдѺ ŷᢹûԴԴ ;鹨ŧ ا;ʵԡͷպҴ


2. ҧҧ´¹ŵʹҹ ʺǷա蹷ѺҹСͺ ҵͧԴ͡ûԴͷҴ дҺᢹԴ ҧͷء駡͹Сͺ, ѧþѡ, ҧûا㹢鹵͹ҧ, ѧҡͧзء֡ʡáѺʡá


3. ûͧѹǷ¡ا (¤) 鹵͹ͧҧзҧ´¹ ͻا÷դ§٧͹͹Ѻзҹ¡ͧ͵ͧҴ繾ͷҴا;ʵԡ зԴ㹤Ҵʹ¢ͧ ͷ᫹Ԫ ا;ʵԡǤöʹ 㹢鹵͹ҧ ͧԵѳ÷դ§٧ ѧҡҧͶا


Ӷǹ

    1. ѡҺҴŷҧ?
    2. ʶҹѺҧͷѡɳҧ?
    3. ӧҹͧسբйǡѺСѡҶاҧ?



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6. ÷ӤҴСæ‏

ºФҴͧdzСͺ纼Եѳä ԸӤѭ㹡ûͧѹû͹繢ͧԵѳ 觷ä繾Դ ÷ӤҴ»ͧѹѵд, ͧѹš㹼Եѳ ºͧͧѡҾҹ ҧʹ㹧ҹ, ֧㨵ͧҹ Ҿѡɳкѷ


6.1 Ἱ÷ӤҴ

Ἱ÷ӤҴͧ鹡ѺἹäǺͧʶҹСͺ з仹

    - ҷӤҴ / ͹ҦẺ˹
    - ҳҷӤҴ
    - Ըա÷ӤҴػóͧ
    - / ӹǹ
    - ѡҹѺԴͺǡѺ÷ӤҴ
    - شͧѹ
    - Թš÷ӤҴҧ




6.2 ҧҪ

Ҵͧªػó㹡ûاѺзҹä ǹӤѭ㹡ûͧѹ繾 ҪзᵡҪй

ͧҧҹ

    1. ͧǨءѹͧҴҹ չҧҹйͺ§
    2. ҧ͡͹¡éմҧ +35 - +40 ͧ ÷õչԴѺҪ
    3. سԢͧҧҹ +60 - +65 ͧ ҧʡá͡ سԹö¨Թդǵӷش
    4. ҧҴش سԤ +80 - +85 ͧ ͹¨ԹзҪййͺҪ͹ѹ ǨЪû͹
    5. ͧӤҴͧҧҹءѧҹ͡ ǩմͧ͡ҧ ͧͧӤҴ ¹͡ҧ Դҷ سԢͧҧ йҴͧԴзҹ

ҧҪд еͧӵ鹵͹ǡѹ ͧ㹤ҴͧҴش С÷駢ͧҪ



6.3 鹵͹ͧ÷ӤҴ

ͨŢͧ÷ӤҴ ÷ӵ鹵͹仹ͷӤҴ¾ҹ, ˭, ͺ, ͧѡ, зӧҹ о:

    1. ʡá͡ 红ʡáͧ, ҧ¹
    2. ҧ ҧͧҴ¹ҷѺͧʡá ͡ҡй㹡áӨѴʡáͧѡ, áҴ, âѴçմ, ͻͧѹʡáԴͧẤ·դҹҹ٧͹Ҧ͹Һҧ駼Ҧʹ
    3. æ Ҩѧҡҧաæ æջԷҾҡ ѧҡҧ ŴҳͧԹ캹ͧҪеҧ Ҧ㹡ҧ鹼, ͹ͧҧҹЦҪ
    4. ҧ¹Ҵ ѧҡҧСæ 鹼ǵͧҧ¹Ҵشҧ´ ͹йҦͨԴѺ鹼ǹ
    5. ÷ 鹼ǷӤҴ зҧ´ ͧ



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6.4 Ѵͧҵ pH

㹡÷ӤҴʶҹСͺ йҦͷҹ йҦͷѺ鹼Ƿõͧ繻¹ ͨ觵ҧ鹼ǹ ͧҨШѴ¡ pH ҡͧԹҨй㹡üФʹ¢ͧҵҧ ǡѺҧʹ¢ͧżԵҧ ǡѺѡɳФʹ¢ͧ ǡѺҧʹµͧ㹷 ѡҹ йҦ͵ͧҪТͧѹͧ ¹ǡѺ·ͨҡҪ纹



6.5 ػóڷӤҴ


ʶҹСͺõͧդҹ, ӤҴз駧 еͧ͡æ 鹼ǷʡѺ о鹼ҧ蹴 ͧػóӤҴ੾Ы觨Ѵ¡çҹصˡö͡ػóӤҴз зӤҴ͹ѹ ҹͧǢҴ˭¡ػó dzѺ١ ͧ ʶҹСͺõͧշػó ҷӤҴСë§ ػóӤҴͧաкҡҧҧ к Ъ鹵ҡ



6.6 æ

æͷ¨Թ 鹼Ƿҹæ (Ȩҡ) óͧҦ͢ѺӹǹԹҪй, ʡáѧ, ѵػó, ѡɳТͧ, 鹢ͧ, سԷФдҧͧ Ҧ·令 ûСͺչ, ͡䫴, šǹͧ͹ Ҧͤ÷ӵйӢͧѷԵ 㹡, ҷʡѺǺdzͧСҧ͡ Ҫзͧ͵ͧ¹Ҧ ͻͧѹ¾ѹԹ͵͹ ͧǢҴ˭öæ¤͹ͧҧҹ, 㹡õҪػó㹹 ͷ͹㹵ͺ͹ػóغŹ Ըҹ¨Թ¤͹ ػóӤҴçҹصˡ´ҧ͹͹ ҧкǹʧŵ (UV) ͷ¨Թҡҡ ͹Сéѧդ ԸաæͷҧҾ



6.7 ûԹŤҴ

ûԹŴҹҷ
Ἱ÷ӤҴ觵駼ѺԴͺ㹡ûԹŤҴ ûԹµ, ôСʾ鹼 ԸҹҡǡѺ稢ͧ÷ӤҴ ʶҹСͺ÷ӤҴҧա͹Ѻ, ٴ, ͡蹨ҡ͹ ¢ͧѵŧСԹ

آ͹
͡˹Եѳ ͧ纵ҧҧçҹصˡ, ҹͧǢҴ˭ ͵ԴŤ稢ͧ÷ӤҴ ͵Ǩ÷ӧҹͧͧѡõҧ ͧҧҹ 纵ҧͧ纨ҡ鹼㹨شԡĵ㹼Եѳ 駼稢ͧ÷ӤҴ¾ҹ, 鹼, §, ػó, Ҫ, ͨѺе, ͡;ѡҹ ҴҹҾͧ鹼öǨ ¡§Թʹ纵ҧ Hygiculf ªԴµҹ ҧԸյǨӹǹԹҡ鹼ѡɳТͧԹ੾, ǹաԸǡѺʡáҡԹѵШӹǹõչԴҧ鹼

ҧԵѳ
ö纵ҧҡٻ觵ǨҹŪҤ šõǨҹŤҴͧûا, ͧѡػó



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6.8 áӨѴͧ

¤ , ¡͡繻, â, Сù áӨѴͧ¢ͧʶҹСͺ ͤԴ 3 СùǷҧ㹡áӨѴͧʶҹСͺ: ʹ¢ͧԵѳ, ûͧѹǴҵФѴ ἹäǺͧʶҹСͺäἹáӨѴͧ 觡˹仹

    - ѺԴͺ
    - ҧ÷駢
    - ¡
    - ҧЦͧ͢ѧ

㹢͡˹ǡѺʶҹСͺ ˹纼Եѳ÷ ͢зԴҡüԵ, úè͡ûا ԴյآҾ 红ʶҹСͺä¡ѵشԺ мԵѳèҡ红 դӤѭ㹡áӨѴͧ շ駢зԴ§㹷ҧ ͧҾФҴͧ駢ҧ мԵѳ÷µͧӨѴ͡ҧҧѹФ ࢵ駢еͧѴҧҴºͻͧѹѵúǹ㹢 աúǹ 㹡¡еͧӵ͡˹ͧзͧ з¡ д, д, ա ػóз纶١ͧ

¡ # з # д # д #




Ѵͧҵ pH:

pH ͧ: 繴ҧ٧ (pH 11 - 14)
Ҫ - 鹷 / ҷӤҴ: ͺ, ͧҧҹ, ػóӤҴ (Cip)

pH ͧ: 繴ҧ (pH 8.1 - 10.0) Ф繴ҧ (pH 10.1 - 11.0)
Ҫ - 鹷 / ҷӤҴ: 鹼ʡáԴҺѹ, ͧͧѡ, , ҧ, Ҫ

pH ͧ: 繡ҧ (pH 6.0 - 8.0)
Ҫ - 鹷 / ҷӤҴ: ÷ӤҴءѹͧ鹼Ƿʡáҡ, 鹼Ƿ, ҧҹ; ͺҪ

pH ͧ: 繡ô (pH 2.0 - 4.9)
Ҫ - 鹷 / ҷӤҴ: Թٹ, ʹ, ͡ਹ͡ҡ ͧҧҹ, ͧѺسԴ¹, ͧ, ǾԹ硷ʹ

pH ͧ: Ҧࢵ pH ҧ
Ҫ - 鹷 / ҷӤҴ: Ҩ㹡÷ӤҴ鹼Ƿµç, ͧͧ駢, к¹ػóӤҴ


Ӷǹ

    1. سἹ÷ӤҴ㹷ӧҹͧسҡ˹ Ἱùúҧ?
    2. ѡػóӤҴ˹?
    3. ͧӤҴзػóӤҴ?
    4. ѧҡҧзӧҹͧҧҴз?
    5. äæ?
    6. ҧҴͧͧҧҹͧҡ +80 ͧ?
    7. ¡˹úҧǡѺáӨѴͧʶҹСͺ?



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7. ûاԵѳ‏

÷ӧҹͧԹС¹ŧҹҾзҧҾ öԵѳ¨ 蹢ͧѹ繡¹ŧҹҾ õҡ駢ͧ÷мԵѳêԴ ͵ҧҡ¹ŧҧҾ



7.1 ÷դ§٧мԵѳ

Եѳ÷դ§٧سԢͧе Ф¡纨ҡԵѳ

ҧͧԵѳ÷դ§٧

    - Ф
    - 秷ѧء
    - Ȥ
    - ÷ا
    - ʴ, ÷ا, ͧ, ʹ, ͺ
    - ͡ٻ, ٻ
    - ʴ, ÷
    - лҷѡͧ, ѹлҧ, ҢǷ¹Ӵҧ, ٻ
    - ѡٻ
    - ûاͧٻ
    - мٻ
    - ,
    - ѧ顷- ը, , Ӽм

öԹ»ҷʷԹҹѧ ѧʴ駻͹, ѡ, , , ͡ () ء سԷռŵ͡ѡҢͧԹҹ 繵ͧ㹤 Եѳҧ蹤 áлͧмżԵ UHT 觨Թ١¡ Թҹöسͧǹҹ



7.2 ͧͺèؼԵѳ

ú͹
ͺèؼԵѳ÷ءԴͧ¤ú͹ 觨к֧͡ѡҤسҾͧԹҹҹ ҧ١ͧԹҹö˹й ѧú͹ ¡ûԹسҾԵѳô»ҷʷ ͧ¹͹ѹͺè÷դ§٧ҹûا¤͹ ( , Եѳ)


ú͹ úѹ֡ѹ

    ѹ͹, ѡԹҹԹ 3 ͹
    ͹л, ѡԹҹ 3-18 ͹
    , ѡԹҹҡ 18 ͹



ѹ (ͧкؼԵѳ١ͧçԧ)

㹴ҹŪԷ ͺèԹ÷դ§٧ Ҩ繵ͧѹ֡ѹصͧѹ֡ ѹ / ͹ / ҵͧԹҹöѧҡѹ ͧ¹ ͺèش٭ҡ ͺèءҫͧ÷դ§٧Ժء ѹطѹ֡ͺèçҹصˡâѺ÷ͧѡԹҷ纵سԷ˹ Щй鹶㹢鹵͹˹觢鹵͹س٧Թ ѡСԹҹҨʹҨ¡͹֧ѹ


ѹԵ
úѹ֡ѹԵͺèöѧѺ


йӡѡ
йӡѡ繢ͺѧѺͧ㹴ҹŪԷ Եѳ÷դ§٧ ô, ѹ͹ йӡѡҤõԴԵѳԹ ҨѺ


Ըա
Ըա繵ͧѹ֡͹, ᷹, (korvasieni) 㹡ûاӤѭкѹ֡੾ѹԵ÷ѧا稷ͧ÷㹵 ͻͧѹѺʹ ͡ùӴѺ͹-ѧҧ١ͧ


Ӷǹ

    1. ԹҪԴѹغѹ֡?
    2. Թҹѡس?
    3. سöԹԹҧ㹡ù?
    4. ͧԧѧѺѹҧ? ?
    5. ԹҪԴ㴷ѹ֡ú͹?
    6. ѹú͹ҹ Ф÷õͼżԵ?



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7.3 â, ѺС纼Եѳ

㹡颹ѵشԺͼżԵҡçҹصˡ ٻѴ繪شҹ˹Т觼Եѳҹ öӤҴº ͡ҡԹͨ˹·㹡â Թҷ秵ͧسԹ繵ͧسԹ繵ͧس繵ʹҡâеͧԴдѺسԪǧҢ觴 سԢͧԹö٧ǤǶ֧ -15 ͧ 㹡âѵشԺмԵѳ÷ѺҹõǨͺ»ҷʷ ҡúèԹҹᵡҴҴº, мѡʴ, żԵѹ ҹ§ мԵѳ繹§ 㹪ǧԹԹҵἹäǺżԵҹͧ㹷ԹҧǴسԵͧԵѳԹҹ

ʶҹСͺäշ੾ѵشԺмԵѳ§͵ѡآ͹¡ͧس㹡ͧǢҴ˭ ҹ˹´ѧ仹

    - Եѳ÷դ§٧ 駹мԵѳԹ +6 ͧ
    - (ԵѳӨҡҹþëԹ +8 ͧ)
    - , ʹ, ͧ, ÷Өҡ; ͧԹ +6 ͧ ͹ҢԹ +7 ͧ
    - »ҧ ժԵԹ +6 ͧ
    - ͺ, żԵӨҡԹ +4 ͧ
    - мżԵҡ÷ 0 - +3 ͧ
    - ȤԹ -18 ͧ


çҹاèҡѵդǡѺس੾ ͻͧѹŧѵúǹ سԷ㹡纼Եѳ駤 ӡ +18 ͧ 㹡ع¹ͧ⡴ѧ繵ͧӵѡ: ẺԵ͹仨˹¡͹ ͷ¡ First in - First out (FIFO) ͤдǡ㹡ù èѴӴѺ͹-ѧءҹ ͻͧѹʷԴԵԴѺ Թѳͧ纼Եѳ Եѳ÷ѧèؤûԴ


õ仹¡纵ҧҡ:

    - ѵաԺ, л
    - ÷اءѧءԴդ§٧

÷ӤҴҧ, СôѡҢͧ ͧ繤 ǹӤѭ㹡ôѡسԢͧҧ١ͧ ͧ繷ءͧͧѴسеͧԴسͧҹҧ 纼źѹ֡ҧ 1 ͧ秢Ҵ˭ (ҡ 10 ҧ) ͧͧѴسԵԴѺѧͧöѹ֡سͧ

0 - +6 ͧ = 㹤繤 ӹǹͧԹŧ Թ쪹Դÿԡ (ͷ) ӹǹ
0 ͧ = 㹹
-18 ͧ = 红ͧԵѳ秤 ͨԹشӹǹ
-20 - -40 ͧ = ÷繹

纶١ͧ ع¹١ͧ!
㹤ҧͧ!




7.4 Եѳ

㹡ҧἹٵԸռŵͧСͺͧӹǹͧԹҡѺسԴ Եѳçҹصˡ, ӵ, äǺ繡ôáѹٴ öкè٭ҡСҫ ·仡纶Թ ¡ǺԸҴ¡ѹ 㹡üԵçصˡ 纶͹ͨйѹҷԵǹҹ ͧ 纶ҹ, ÷ҷ¤ ѵشԺٻªԴ ٻǹ˭Ǩ÷դ§٧ ѵشԺ, ÷ѧٻٻ ͧͧѹҡû͹ û͹öԴԸ ö֧, á, , ҹзӧҹ, ػó ЩйͧǤ觵仹:

    - èѴ¡ͧЪԴ㹡ûاТ鹵͹
    - ҳͧѵشԺá稷ҹ
    - ҳͧй
    - ҡ红ͧѵشԺ, áٻٻسͧ
    - ûا㹤͹С÷͹ҧջԷҾ
    - ÷ªԴͧǡѹ
    - ÷¢鹵͹¤ǡѹ
    - Т鹵͹¡ͧҴ͹ѹ Щй鹵ͧзӧҹͧ͡÷ӧҹ੾ ¡§

û͹ û͹ҡ ʡáͧ͢Ǣͧѵա÷ء÷Թҹ͹ ͡û͹ҡػó, Ҫ, ͧͷӧҹͷҴ ͨԹҹͧ繡û͹蹡ѹ ͻͧѹû͹ͧ¡÷ӤҴСѺاͧѵشԺ л ͼѡ軹Թ, ûاԵѳءСѴ÷ӤҴ ੾ͧͷ㹡 ë СúءԴ ͻا÷ءǨ§͡û͹ѧûا ءûاѺͧͷҴ



ͻاõ仹Ѵѧҧ´:

    - üͧôԺء㹢ѧ, Ѵèҡ
    - ü÷ҷҧѹ
    - ëºҧСúèآͧء
    - ǹСͺͧôԺء ͨйҨѴ繪ش
    - ͧء



кǹ UHT (Ȩҡ) ʻͧẤ¨ж١
+100 ͧҤ Ấ·ӹǹж١ ʶ١

+70...+80 ͧҤ þë ʻͧʵж١ Թǹ˭ж١

+60 ͧҤ ԹӹǹªԴѧժԵ

+6 - +60 ͧҤ ǧѹ¨ԹӹǹҧǴ


û͹Сû͹ѧûا!



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7.5 ûاԵѳ¤͹

ûا¤͹繡״ҡö »ͧѹ÷ӧҹͧ͹з¨Թ سԵ仹 سԢͧ


ǡ
ǡѡ㹹ʹѴз÷ӧҹͧ͹ش ռŵкͧѡûا¤͹Ըչʵ ӹǹͧẤǹ˭躹鹼Ǽѡ


þë
ûا¤͹ (+60 - +95 ͧ) µͧ÷դöӹǹͧẤ·Դä Թҷҹþë ( żԵ) ͧ㹤ʻͧẤ١㹡þëسᵡҧѹѺͧԹЪԴ 㹡þëس +72 ͧ 15 Թҷ ǡѹöëѧҡúè


÷ء
㹡÷ءͧسԢͧ÷ +70 - +100 ͧ ʵ, , Ấ·դöӹǹ١ ʻͧẤ



㹡ͪ (UHT = ultra high temperature س٧ҡ) س㹹ҧ·ش +135 ͧ 2-3 Թҷ 觨з¨Թͺ ͡ҡԹҨкèҧȨҡ ¡ҧԵѳáѺúèͷȨҡ͵ҧҡռŵͤسҾŴŧ ¡ҼżԵԧäԸչöѺżԵҧ蹴¼żԵͪշѧԴöسͧ 㹡áлͧ Եѳ÷اءǨкè㹡лͧ٭ҡ żԵз͹ѺҪзèǹ仵çѹ +110 - +120 ͧ ǧ˹Ըչѹҧسҵͧʹͧѹ 㹼Եѳ÷ѧ ʻͧẤ¨ж١੾ʻͧẤ ʷ ⺷ 觷Դäзҹͤ͹áлͧѧԴ öسͧ» żԵúҧԴöʧ ͧع, ͧúҧԴçҺ ʧͧͺèش 㹵ҧʧӹǹ㹡÷ŧСûͧѹѹ͡ҡʧͧ駺ͺè


Եѳ÷ҹ ҡлͧ ǡлͧ


÷
÷繢ͧ÷ҹ͹÷Ըմѧ èŧӡ +6 ͧ Թ 4 ѧҡ鹤㹵ʻͧẤ¨ӹǹ÷ǡҹ ͧ੾㹡÷繷ջԷҾͧ ¡繶Ҵ繪 СáǹЪ÷Ǣ


÷繹
÷ͧмżԵ纨ҡҵ ö繹ͧǢҴ˭ öТ ҡͺè¹ ''繹'' ԸչͧʶҹͧҹõǨͧ˹ҷҸóآ: ÷繵ͧʶҹ繵ӡ +6 ͧ ͷ繹 ͧͧسԵӡ -18 ͧ ÷繹秤÷ӵӡ 24 ʶҹ纼Եѳ÷繹秫سԹ -18 ͧ ԸչͨԹشӹǹͧѹ



ҪѭѵǡѺ ¡ͧçҹصˡͧԵѳõͧշкҡ 繵 ͧͷջԷҾسԵӡ -40 ͧ á紹èǴǢ 秵ͧӵ仨֧ҧ -15 ͧ 繡ҹ 秤Тس -18 ͧ 繡ҹ ͺèصͧѹ֡ '''' 秷ºҧǹ ͷùա ͨԹشӹǹͧѹ


س!
͹ͧ͹ 繵ͧ!


㹡¢ͧԵѳ÷ѧࡵҼԵѳҹǡá͹ ੾лҴԺ, ѵѵա 㹤 +4 ͧ



7.6 â, Сè˹¢ͧ

âС쿢ͧٻèѴӴѺѧ ͹ͧ㹷سҧ +60 ͧ÷繤纵ʹسԵӡ +6 ͧ ͨԹӹǹ Եѳ÷դ§٧ͧس繡ҹԹ +4 ͧ سԢͧâ쿨٧͵ŧҧ +12 - +60 ͧ ѧҡù鹤÷ ѴسԢͧâҧǹ˹觢ͧäǺ ͧӤ͹-ͧӤе õǨͺҾҹ ÷쿤ûͧѹû͹ҡ´, нͧ 㹡õѡä ժ͹ѡ੾ѺЪԴ ѺЪԴ ÷ͨҡ쿵ͧ ͹ҡ 2 ѧ͹ С§ͧ繾ɨ سԨŴŧӡúҧǹ ʻẤ·鷹͡÷ء դöӹǹӹǹ ͧسԷҹ鹵ͧѧࡵ㹡 è˹СèѴ繪ش ա駪ǧѹ +6 - +60 ͧ ͧա§ҧǴ Ƕ֧͹ҹҡ +70 ͧ (ѵա +75 ͧ) 蹢ͧǿͧ͹ ¤ǿ͹ͧ͹Ƕ֧ лҳ㹨شҧ ͧ͹ѹ 觹Ŵ㨢ͧ÷¨Թ㹡¤ǿ


Ӷǹ

    1. 㹡ûاسԵ仹¤? -18 ͧ, 0 ͧ, +6 ͧ, سͧ, +60 ͧ, +70 - +75 ͧ?
    2. Ӥѭ㹡ѺԵѳСèѴ㹷?
    3. áû͹͡û͹ѧûاԴ?
    4. èԴ鹡ѺẤ·繾 㹡÷繨繹, 㹡㹡¼Եѳ÷繹?



ҹ§ ѡѧѡ ѹ͹ŧ仵 ֧ҧ駪Եͧá˹ ·ѡ¹ŧ
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8. äǺ

8.1 äǺ繢͡˹ҧ


á˹ǡѺäǺ㹡ǢͧѺԨôҹмСͺ ǹ㹡üԵء鹵͹: üԵ Ҵ Թҹ, Թҹ͡ úè, ѧ, Сâ ͡˹ǢͧѺСͺ 1 ¡㹵Ҵ֧çҹصˡâҴ˭ ¡˹ǹǢͧѺԵҪкèتԴҧ СͺõͧǨͺкѹ֡شԡĵ㹡ûاԵѳеͧѴáõԴҧ Ҫѭѵԡ˹ͤ㹢ͧἹäǺ йҧ´Ѻçҹصˡا, ѧ, ͨ˹¼Եѳ÷Өҡѵ¡äǺ СͺèѺԴͺʹ¢ͧżԵԵШ˹


8.2 ἹҹäǺ

Сͺ¡èѴἹҹ, ԸշӧҹСúѹ֡šõԴ ͤ㹤ʹ¢ͧԵѳ ҹ¡ҡûԺѵҧ١آ͹· ἹäǺäǺõǨͺԹҷ, ŢͧԹҹԹҹ͡, ǨͺͧǴͧèѴСѡҷ١ͧ س, آѡɳТͧѡҹ, ôآҾͧѡҹСѡآ͹, Ἱ÷ӤҴС÷駢ǡѹ բй㹡èѴöʧѵúǹ繾 㹡óշҼżԵѹµآҾͧͧἹҨԹҤ׹ҡ˹١ҧ?

ǹӤѭ㹡÷ἹäǺ鹨ҡõǨͺشԡĵ㹼żԵСԨâͧСͺ к HACCP (ѹШشԡĵͧǺ) к鹵͹ҧ ͧԵѳäҴἹѧ, Ǩͺʹ¢ͧТ鹵͹, ˵мŤʹ¢ͧüҹûԹš§͡شԡĵ ǹ˹㹢鹵͹÷ӧҹöԴʹµ, ʹ¹鹵ǨлͧѹԴ¡õԴҧ´ ҧἹѺشԡĵԸդǺе駢ͺࢵ, ԸԹͺࢵҨشԴкѹ֡



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آ͹¼Եѳ Ѻا 2012


2
͡ (˹ҷ 4) ˹ҷ 5
СͺԨѺԴͺǡѺʹ¢ͧԵѳء СͺԨõͧҧἹлԺѵԵäǺ ͤ㨵ͤʹ¢ͧԵѳСûԺѵԵѡآ͹ ( 8)

ʶҹСͺ (˹ҷ 5) ˹ҷ 1-2
ҪѭѵʶҹСͺ (136/2011) Ф ˹ҼԵѳöԵ, ѡ âСè˹ʶҹҧ? ͧ˹ҷҸóآͧ 4 ҷԵ͹Թ ʶҹСͺ駹鹨͸ԺǡѺʶҹ ػóҧ Ԩ÷ԴҨзмԵѳ͡

ǢͧѺԨüԵѳ÷ءҴ Ҩ͢ҧ͡¹ŧӤѭͧ駴ʶҹСͺ÷͹ͧ駵˹ҷʶҹҧ·ش 4 ѹѹҪá͹Ԩ

˹ҷö˹ͺࢵԨ÷ҧἹз ҡͧСͺҹʹ¢ͧ§




3
˹ҷ 12 ˹ش
ѵҧ ùʶҹСͺ¡عѢӾЪͤԡ ѵ§öҢҧ͡Կ੾ͧҹ й͡ҡ鹹Ңҧ ҼСͺԨ͹حҵ




5
ûͧѹäԴͼҹҧԵѳ (˹ҷ 24 ) ÷Ѵ 5
ؤŷҷҺʧ繾йäԴͼҹԵѳûاԵѳʶҹСͺ ŷպҴѡʺ, 纻, ǧǹ ͧдѺԴԴԴ ûاԵѳդ§٧ѧè




7
â ѺС (˹ҷ 34) ÷Ѵ 24

ҪѭѵʶҹСͺá˹س٧ش㹡红ͧԵѳ÷դ§٧

- Եѳ÷դ§٧, , ѡ, ǧ͡, ٪ +6 ͧ
- ԵѳӨҡҹþë ( ) +8 ͧ
- ʹ ͧ ÷Өҡ÷Өҡҹ͡ҡ觷СǶ֧ +6 ͧ
- »ҧ ժԵ +6 ͧ
- ͺ Ѻ żԵӨҡ +4 ͧ
- ѹлʴ мԵѳҷè٭ҡкèش 0 ֧ -3 ͧ
- ʴ÷ŷسԢͧ 0 ͧ
ͤ -18 ͧ

â Сè˹¢ͧ (˹ҷ 39) ˹á
â Ш˹¢ͧٻèѴӴѺѧ Եѳ͹ͧҧ·ش 60 ͧ繵ӡ 6 ͧ ʹҢ Եѳ÷դ§٧ѧè ҡ 4 Ф§ͧ繾ɨ ʻͧẤ·ѧժԵ㹡ö鹵Ấ·ӹǹӹǹҧǴǹ÷ŧ ѧҡǧжҡسҧ +12 ֧ 60 ͧҵͧ÷ ¡鹼Եѳ좹ѧ դ§٧ͺ㹷˹ ö˹ѹԵسͧ Ңͧѹ




8
äǺ繢͡˹ҧ (˹ҷ 41) ÷Ѵ 8
¡˹ǹǢͧѺԵҪкèتԴҧ С鹡üԵ

ἹäǺ ˹ҷ 2
ҧἹͧäǺöҡ§ҹآ͹ǢͧѺѵشԺ ԵѳСԨк (ѹШشԡĵͧǺ)

˹ҷ 42 ÷Ѵ 6 Ѵ¤÷Ѵ 6
»˹ҷҸóآ ǨԴûԺѵԡäǺ¾ԨóҤ§ͧ͢ἹСй еǨúѹ֡żšõǨͺäǺ





Edited by United - 21 May 2013 at 01:46
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㹪¹ 1 жʹԻ§ҡҨ͹ (ҧӿѧҡҡ ͧѧ պҧ¤ҹ¢鹹Ф)

觹͡ѹ 3 Ҩ͡ʶ֧ж ѧҡѹҨ͹Сͺա駹֧ СҶպҧͷҷͧͺԴͶ١觹ö Ըյͺͺԧ ҧա͹ Ӷشǡѹ ҧ͡ҧ͡ն⪤ ԧѹӶ ͧ¤Ӷ? 繻¤ҶҶ١ͼԴ ѹº§ ֡Ѵеͺ੾жջ¤ʸ㹻¤ͧԴ Ҩеͺѧ? ѹ觹Ҿʻ ͺѵûШӵǷٻͧͧҴ ͹Ҩ͹ ҧҧö   ҡ 7 ˹ 32 ҼԵѳ¤ Եѳ÷ءҧҡԹʹ зء觷ءҧҨ ͧ ͧ÷Թ ǡ鹡ͼԵѳ͹ѹ ǡ١ ꡡ ѧ繼Եѳ ҤԴ֧ҹ¼Եѳþǡػǹҡسͧ? ǹҡͧ ͧ سԡ¹ ˹͹͹˹˹ ˹͹˹˹سԨҡѹ ӤѭͧѧнҼѧ͹ͻͧѹͽ蹨 ҤԴ֧ҧͧáлͧ 駡д , ӵ, , ꡡ, ѹת ͧ Ҿٴ֧ԵѳҹѹǴԹӹǹ Ấ ʵ ͧùӶ֧ӹǹ ѹӹǹ öӹǹ ǹҡҡѧࡵâ 繼Եѳ÷ҢسͧеԴѹẺ˹? ѹѹѹ ú͹ ¤ҤԵѳ鹵ͧԨóͧѧҡѹѹѧ?   ѧҡѹú͹? Եѳҹҡҵá͡ҡçҹѹ÷Թ ա¹ŧзѹѹѹѹѺ ӵ ͧѧࡵش»ҷ ա蹼Դҡ աš ʹ㨡͹ѹ ա蹡ա蹼Դ ѧռԵѳҧҧԴѹ͹ ѹդ鹺ҧ سҾͧѹ¹Դ˹¶纹ҹҨТ ѹǡѺѡҡǢͧѺǴ صҶդ Ф͹٧ з աҧ¡ҼԵѳ÷դ§٧ ѵطҨҡѵ ѹըԹ㹵 ըԹɡ ѹըԹӹǹѵشԺ зöẤ·ѹ´ ɴ öẤ¨ҡ ѵ ͨҡͧѵ Ǵ㹵ѹ դ СͨԹªԴöӹǹ㹹 㹼ѡǡöըԹªԴ ͺ͡ ͡Ҵöͧѹ÷ҧ صҨеѴ͡͡͵÷դ§ ѡѧáöسͧ صȶ繪 ѹС÷դ§٧   ÷դ§٧ǡѡ蹡㹡 ٻáٻ Ҿٴ֧÷դ§٧ ͧٴ֧س سͧ 繷仹С纵ӡس? 繻ҴԺ 0 ͧ 繼Եѳҷè٭ҡ 0-3 ͧ Ȥ -18 ͧ ͹ +60 ͧ 㹡ͧ÷դ§٧ ѹѧռԵѳҧԴú͹úҧ? ҹëͼԵѳӨҡҹþëõԴѹ͹ ¡鹹ҹþë +8 ѹ繡¹ŧ ԵѳẺ˹Դѹ? ÷դ§٧è ੾з٭ҡͷ ѹѹ繤ʹ¢ͧԵѳ ? ѧҡͧѧࡵؼԵѳ͹ ѹԴԡ ѹ٭ҡ份ҡͧ ѹʢҧ ѹѹ´ áкǡѺҨ ѹк㹹鹴    2 ٴ֧ǡѺ áкǺè ͧ ػóҷ ءҧӨҡ áкҩҡԴõͧ¹úҧ? 㹩ҡҡͧ¹੾÷ͧçѹ ҡҡͧ¹ Եѳöз餹   ¹㹩ҡ ͧǴҷö¹ѡٵùúҧͧ੾ ҵͧ¹ٴ¶öҨз餹 ǨԹҡͧ õͧçٵٷ͡Ѻҹ תҧ ÷褹 ͧ¹ٴ¶ Եѳ ÷ ǷءԴ ʵ 鹩 ռѡҧԴҵͧ¹ 紧 СͺԨôҹ繤ӷҵͧ ا餹蹨СԹ 繼СͺԨôҹ Ҿٴ֧ǡѺآ͹ ҡٴ֧֧ á¡ͧҹǡѹҡҨмԵ ͤ繤 ҹ ͧ顮ǡѹ   ҷӧҹçҹ˭ ҹ 㹵Ҵ¡ῡ áкطءҧѺͧ »ȷͨҡ Եѳ Щйҵͧ顮-šѹš 㹪ͧöռԵѳҡšѹ ͨҡҫ բաҡ˹ ͧȨҡԹ ռѡҡͧ¡Сҹǡѹ ͧͧ͢駾ѹ ա͡ѹҡ ءѹվǡ͹෹դ繢ҧ? öʴ ʹԺ ҡ˹ѧա˹ աջ˹ ѵشԺҨҡҹҧ Ҩҡзջ ͧ÷Ѻͧ ж÷ҡöǺ㹷ء鹵͹ Ҩǡѹͤзջ ԧͧԵѳ? ҡеǨԶշҧ ԨôҹԵѳ÷ءԨáͧѴøáԨͧ ͨѹµͼ




Edited by United - 17 May 2013 at 09:28
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㹪¹ 2

3 մ¤ úҧաͧ˹ ǡٴ֧سԴ лȵҧ ա¤ ѹ ǡѺʶҹСͺ ԨáͧѴҹͧҵͧ Ҥѡз ҡԴԨҹҹá ҡԴѺ١ ҡеǨҧ ҡӹҨеǨ͹˹ҷҸóآҵǨԨâͧ صˡԵѳ ҹҧ ЫͼԵѳҡçҹҡеǨ Ҩ仫͵͹෹¼ѡ Ҩҡͧ   仵Ǩҡû١١ͧ áѹٴ ͧǨ͹ء ԹŹѧ ٴ֧ҡǡѺ? ҡ͡㹵Ҵ


8 شӤѭҡ Ҩ繡ԨâҴ˹ ͧӡäǺͧ
ͧѵشԺẺ˹? Сѹúҧ? ͧͧѹ֡ ص㹩ҡ¹͹÷ҧ繨ԧ ҡеͧ仢鹵͹ء鹵͹СԴ ÷骴 ÷仵ҡ ǡѹҡҼл¨ҡâͧ ҡͧǨ˵Ҩҡ˹? жաúѹ֡ҡеԴҡ Ҿٴ֧Ţͧ繾ǹҡͧǹͧ ÷黹͹ѵشԺ黹͹ ѡسѡآ͹µ ͧ·ا ҡ͵Сٴ֧ӹǹ Ҿٴ֧Ҥҡش˵ؤ äкҴ? ǹҡҤ˵Ҩҡ ÷ҡԹԺ кҴͧä繾ɷ˭شԹŹ ͧ Nokia ӴԴ 9,000 ѹ е仡Ҥ¡ҳ ҹ֧ѹ ջѭҨҡͷ纹ҹ ѧҡ价Ѵ ˹ 20 Ấͫ¹蹡ͷ ա˹˹觡ٴ֧ǡѺʷ繾 չӷ黹͹ վǡ ǡ 黹͹ ÷ŷ黹͹ ءԨҨ繢Ҵ˹ͧἹáäǺ еͧǺͧ˹ҷз еͧաúѹ֡ ҶҷѧջѭԴ ˹ҷҸóآҵǨ ҡöʴҡµǨҧ ѹ֡ ҡõѡآ͹¡ҹ餹Թ С÷Թ

Ѻҷ˹ 8 ͧоٴ֧Ҥ§ͧԵѳ ѹ 3 ŪҾ,   Ҿ, Ҿ Сáкҵͧͧѹ§ 3 ҧ? ҵͧ͡÷褹ö ҨջѭԴҡԹù ѵءͧҪͧͧ͡繵͡ зûҨա¹ö ҡ駷Ӣѧ ҿԹԪ շͧյ ͡ҡ š ѹ÷è㹼ԵѳѹҨҡѵشԺҧѹպҧ ÷ һ١? ҡͧպҧҧ ǧʻԧ   ҨЫͼѡСѹһ ͧ ͧǨҨӹǹչ鹨٧Թ §ѵҧѵеͧա ҹè㹹 ҫʹԺ ҡèлԴԵѳԴԴ šè ҵҧ ͧǡͧ繼Եѳ÷ͧ á ͧѴѧҾǡ ͡д١ Ǣѧҡҡͧ觷š͡ 觷㹢͡ ٴ֧ǡѺ§ҹԹҡشШԹͧ С㹼ԵѳѹͧըԹѵشԺѹͧըԹҡͧѴѧըӹǹԹШԹѹ¨ ѵúǹè㹼ԵѳèʶҹСͺ Сٴ֧ǡѺѵ§ա

˹ 12 ÷Ѵش ش¡ա¹ŧ ҡѵ§ҧ ʶҹҧ Сͺ? ҡٴ֧عѢ¤ԡҹ繡 ͡ѵ§Դ蹡 ǹա¡ҹ ٴ֧ҹ¾ٴ֧ҹ ҹõѴԹ੾⫹ͧ 鹻շ ҢͧҹöѴԹ ѹ¹ Ͷͧҵʹ ҡͧҵʹ ҹԴҹ÷Թյ͹Ѻѵͧ¹º͡Թյ͹Ѻѵ ҹá Է͡ Եѳ좹ǡҡ §зءҧդ§öԵѳ÷ءԶշҧ ѵشԺеԴ§ҧ֧ͧǡ ЩйһاҵͧԴҷ˹öзҧѡԴԹ(ҡ) ͷ˹öлاҴԺ ʴ ѵͺҧѹʡá͵Դ ҫѵҵͧǨѹ÷Ѻ ͧػóҧ áͧ÷ҧ ͧԴ֧ҡȴͧǢͧ ҶҷӤҴ ҡȡҴ ҡսҡȡըԹս ͧչӷҵҰҹ 㹡¡к㹹ӴöըԹҡ? ҡ? ФسҾͧӵͧҵҰҹͧҨӨҡ͡˹͹ҡ͹ӡ ͧ˹ҷͧӡԨ÷еǨҹ㹺͹ӹ鹴 ;ѡҹöû͹Զշҧ

5 ˹ҷ 24 ٴ֧آѡɳТͧѡҹ ٴ֧ͧ觡ѧ? ͧѡآѡɳѧ? ա¡ͧǡѺآҾͧѡҹ ӧҹ繾ѡҹʶҹСͺáèäԴͷҧ ӧҹԹҧͧǨẤ ҺҧԴ ҡẤªԴ˹觷Դä繾 ҧä繾ɷҡç ҡѧöойäҨ餹蹵ʹ ͺҧҡçҷԵ˹ҡä繾ɡ ҡẤ¡ѧԴҡҡԴ еǨبẤ? ҡԴ繾й͡ ҡҷӧҹѺԵѳ÷ء駷ͧСѺ ͹СѺҷӧҹͧǨبС͹ء ԹҡԹŹԹҧԹл ٨ҡʶԵԢͧä繾ɷԴҡҧȡͻԹл¤ͧʶԵ觡ѹ Դä繾ҡش ˹觨äҡ ա˹觨äẤҡ

ѡҹö觪شͧẺҨҡҹ ͷӧҹͧö觪شͧẺҨҡҹ ͡͹쿡բСçմ ѹ͹Ѻӧҹͧ õǨҡա 30 Ф觹ѧ¹ҵͧǨب ҵ駡¹ ԹҧԹչҡԹҧѹ ǹ餹ԹԹҧѹҡ ͹顮ѧ¹ ѹǡ礧ʵ͡ 价ѹ Թҧ͡᡹ҡ 4 ѹ ҡͧǨبҡѺ ءѹ 1 ѹ֧ 2 ѹ ӡ 4 ѹҡǻ СҨеԴ ͧСº͡ҡ 4 ѹ



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㹪¹ 3

4 оٴ֧ǡѺԹ
Թ¤ ÷ժԵ ͧ繴µ 㨢ҴͧԹ 纡ըԹһЪҡâͧԹŹ 5 ҹ 纻ʴҡѺЪҡû ǹջЪҡ״ ѡʺ㹹͡ըԹӹǹҡѺЪҡúš ʵ˭ش Ấ硡ҵ ʡ硡ա 4 繨Թ: Ấ ʵ ë ѹǷء ѹժԵЩйѹѡɳ ҧ ѹеͧմҹ ѹҧѹмԵҧ͡ ѹԸշӹǹ 3 á: Ấ ʵ öӹǹǴӹ´ ѹ դ§͡öӹǹ ʡ͹ ѹͧõǷժԵ ʵͧժԵ价͹ӹǹ ʷѴ˭Դ鹡ժԵ㹤ͧ͢ 觹١ ҡʵ ʷ繾 ժԵԵͧͧѵ ж仢ҧ ժԵ ǡѹСӹǹ ѹҾͧѹ ѹ͡ҡ㹹͵

˹ 22 ٴ֧ʷ繾 Ҿٴ֧ǡѺä繾ɷ˵ؤ ѹǢͧѺӷ黹͹ء öԴä繾 ҴӷҴ͹秷١ͧ ͼѡ黹͹ ҨСԹѵشԺҡӷ黹͹ ÷ŷء͹СԹ Ыͨҡҧ ѹµԴʹ͵Ѻѡʺ͡㹼ҹ öӹǹ ЩйʷԵѳ öѧࡵ 㹹 ö纵 Ǵӹ´ա ö躹鹼Ǻҧ駹ҹ 㹪ǧѴ˭СͧѴѧҹ ͧӤҴԴе ͡ ҡҷ١ Ѿ 鹾 ᤪջҡ ǹҡӤҴ ءѹ褹 öеԴ öԴҡ褹 ͧ кҴԴ㹺ҹѡ Ǿѡҹл лµ Ấ ʵöӹǹ㹼Եѳ 㹴Թ 㹹ӶǴӹ ѹзաá ʵ Ըշӹǹҧʻ仵ҡ Сᵡ˹ ẤԸǤ ѹդٳ 2 4, 4 8 Թ Ấ öҧɷ繾 ˹ 15 з ͧǨԹ ҨآҾҡͧèԹªԴ㹵 ԸշӼԵѳªԴͧèԹз (ҨҶջҹ? ѡ¹ͺ ըԹջ) ҵҳѡԵ繼Żª ѵشԺҹ ¡ö ͧ ͷ÷纹ҹ 繹 ͼԵѳ纹ҹ ͫ ѵз͡() Ӵͧ ª ʵͧ÷Ӣѧ ͡ѡǹͧʵ Ҿٴ֧Ấ·繻ªẤ¡ôայآҾ ҹҡ¼ԵѳªԴẤ·㹼Եѳù Ấ¡ôҡ仫ͷҹ շٴ֧ǡѺԹ ѹ 2 Զշҧѹʹ ѹӹǹСԵѳ ШԹҧԴöһ ʵӼԵѳẺ˹? ԵѳẺ˹Դ ռ ͧչӵй ԵѳẺ˹? ѧ йǷաôǡö ҡö麹 աô٧ 繡 Ҿٴ֧ҡͧѴѧþɷҺҧԴмԵþ ѹ ҼԵѳ ǡö Ấ·ѹöзԶշҧ ص͡Ѵ繪 ǡѹ͡ҧѹҨҡẤ¹ ٴǶ纹ҹ ÷ҧҡ ѹѹ·ء è ջѹ٭ҡ 礹鹨 ѹ к Եѳ мԵѳѹµͪԵ ҧ㹤Ấ·ҧþ Сþҡз Ըշзþ Ấ· ѹѧӹǹ㹼Եѳͧ ੾Ấ·繾ɷ˹ 2 ҾǡẤҹ繤§ͧԴѹ Ҩ˹ 16 ԹշءҨѹ繻ѭ ҡеͧԴǴ ӡѹҡҾǴ ҷ᫹ԫسͧػóѵشԺ÷ҵͧҷ᫹ԫ èسͧҹ Թշء ӹǹ ѹͧ ѹͧä ѹͧسԴӹ ѹͧ͡СͺӹǹͧԹ èԹ繨ԹҡԹ繾ǡõչ ӵ÷ҡԹ͹ѹ ҹҾǡͧ öҹҾǡꡡѹդ Թöӹǹ Եѳ駡ըԹѹդ? Щйѹ֧ӹǹ á¼ҹ͹Թͧѧ Ấµͧä ͹ж֧ӹǹ   Ấ·Ấ¢ͧ˹ѧͧҡöӹǹ㹤 йӵš͹Ըշҷѹѡɳ͹ѹ ͹ӵҡԹöӧҹ

繡ô-ҧͧСͺԴ˹ Ҿͪҳ 7 繡ҧӹǹ øҷ仡ࢵ ǡ ѵ ѹ ͷ ѡ ǷاǡࢵҾͪҧ ẤªԴӹǹࢵ СҴ ҡԸ˹Ըöաô٧㹼Եѳ Ấҹ鹡öӹǹ ҡդô٧ ǡҧ ǡ Ấ¡öӹǹ ͵Сٴ֧Ấ¡ôԸմͧẤ¡ô 繹ҹ Ấöӹǹ ᵧҨ纹ҹ ᵧ Kesäkurpitsa ŧ㹹ªѹҹ Ҩҡաô٧ʵöӹǹ

ٴ֧͡ਹ
բѧ ͢ء Ңç˹? ѹ礧բҧ㹡Ҵ ҵͧ͡ਹͧҡȸ èѡ? (ͧ㹪ǧѹçҹ觪ҵԢͧԹ) ͹áҷʵ鹾鹼Ǣͧͧ Сʵѹŧ㹹ѹԵš Ấ·͡Դ鹺鹼 ẤºҧԴöӹǹշءӹǹ˭ҧ ҧ Ƿءѹöӹǹҧ ẤºҧԴӹǹ͡ਹ ʷöӹǹ੾͡ਹ ٭ҡС礷ʢҧѹ繡üԵ ͷлͧѹԵѳ ҡҧ㹹 §㹺èẺ Ấ·繾 ǡẤ·ͧѵöӹǹ٭ҡȡ Щйҵͧ纼Եѳ㹤ҵͧѡѹش ѹлʹþ ҵѹء¤ҵͧ纼Եѳ㹤繵ʹ ҡѹ㹤ѹس ҡжѹع ҡһ͹٭ҡͧ¡ͧѹ ͧ ͧѹ

繡͹ͪ ѹ˹ẤСҡѹ?
繪 ẤС 繡͹Ấµçǹ鹼ҹ ءѹҨз繡͹ء͹ǤҵѴ繪 ͹á͡ͺ駷繪()ҹ ͡()öسͧöҹ 繪 ǡöҹ͹͡駫繪˭



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㹪¹ 4

жǴӹ·ҹѺ 1 ʻդٳ 1    Ấ¢ͧ˹ѧͧ дöդٳ 1 / 3 ҤԴ 1 / ѧҡ 1 2,000, 2 4,000, 3 6,000    ѧҡ 10 1,000 ҡͺѧҡ 10 سͧ 㹵 6 зդٳ 1    سͧѧҡ 12 Ấ¡ҹ չ㹤ѧҡ 12 4,000 ѧҡ 12 ѹСԹ   ͺѧҡ㹤 ҤԴҨù èպͧ㹪ǧҷẤ 1,000 1,000,000 СẤ ¼Եѳù鹷 ѹҨԵѳù ҨẤҡ ˹աáѡعͺ觹 ѹҡЫ ѹ١555 ҵͧء͹ͷʹ͹ҨЫѺ觹֧͡͹ ͧӨҡ͹ǵӡ +6 ѧҡҡպ㹵繹 ÷ǡͧԴк¤͹͹Ө ѹ繹¡ûԴ ҡ繹繪 Դ 觹ҡФµ ѹѧ´ 觢ͧẤ˹? ١ûͧѹ˹ҹͧѹԸչԸ˹? дẤҹԴ˹? Դ˹? ͺӶ¤ 40 ͷҨ ҺѵûШӵǷٻ;ʻ ҡչԹ




Edited by United - 20 May 2013 at 20:03
ҹ§ ѡѧѡ ѹ͹ŧ仵 ֧ҧ駪Եͧá˹ ·ѡ¹ŧ
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ҧͺآ͹ªش 1 ‏

ӹѡҹС㹿ԹŹ
Ѵöҹآ͹ / ҧͺ 1 2
ѧࡵ͡ͺӶẺҡҷ˹觢 ͺ 45 ҷ ҧͧͺ͡͹ 20 ҷ ͺ 㹡ͺբͺ 40 ͧͺ١ 34 ͢
еͧҡչԹ (ҡմ) 㹡÷Ӣͺͨա䢢ͺѧҡͺ

سҡ͡ҧѴਹҿԹ
͵йʡŢͧͺ (Թ 27 ѡ) ѹ.͹. ( . 2011)

ͺẺ͡١ͼԴ¡áҡҷ㹪ͧ ''١'' Ҷ١ Сҡҷ㹪ͧ ''Դ '' ҼԴ

Ң˹١ͫѡտչԹФ Ң˹ԴͫзӵѡᴧФ 㨵Ф

Ӷ


1. ǧسҧ +6 - +60ͧռŷͨԹջª ǹ˭ӹǹ
2. ẤǴöͧµ
3. ö͹ʣüҹ
4. þԸ˹㹡æͨԹ
5. ͨԹɷչ͡ǼԵѳ
6. ͨԹö෨ҡʡáнͧ
7. öҧþ㹼Եѳ÷ѹµ
8. ԵѳءԵͨԹ繻ª
9. ͨԹ繾ö͹Ѻͧӧҹ ¼ҹͷҧҴ
10. Ấ·繾 դٳ繾㹢¡سͧ
11. ͨԹ繾ǹ˭ж١ سâҡ +75 ͧ
12. Ấ·繾ɷդٳ÷سͧ
13. Kaliki (Norwalk NLV) ж١سҡ +90 ͧ 2 ҷ
14. áлͧ öԴ繾

15. Ѵٻöسͧ§͡Դ繾
16. ÷÷͹ŧԸժ ˵ӤѭԴ繾
17. ҵԹ 㹵繹鹨§
18. س͹㹢쿵ͧҧ ͧ ʹз쿹
19. ÷سͧѵ§繾

20. Ҩҡռ繣ɵ͡âµǢͧªԴ
21. 秷سҾͧôբ
22. ˹觤駷ûȨҡ

23. ءôԺ¡ػóоз
24. û͹¤ͨԹ / ըж
25. ˹ѧͨԹҡ й㹢зا÷ѧèؤǡԴҧԴԴ

26. ǹͻا÷ѧè
27. ҴöǷͺس

28. Դ͡ӴͷҧҴ ͹鹨ʡáա
29. ͧͷӤҴҹ öͨԹʶҹСͺ
30. ÷ӤҴ駢ʶҹӧҹҧ
31. ÷ӤҴС÷駢ͧػóӤҴ ÷ӷءѹͨԹöҹػóӤҴʡáҡ˹˹
32. Ԩôҹ÷ءԨõͧеͧԺѵԵἹäǺ
33. õǨسͧ纼Եѳäǹ˹觢ͧäǺ
34. ¡äǺöŴҳͧ÷դسҾеͧ
35. ػóӤҴͧͧաͧ͡ٴҡ
36. ÷ἹäǺդӤѭش˵طռšзͤسҾФʹ¢ͧ
37. õǨسԢͧԵѳ͹繷ǹ˹觢ͧäǺ
38. ʴѵӷ͡ اءǵͧسԹ秷 (0 ͧ )
39. ͧ繷ءͧʶҹСͺõͧԵѴس
40. ԹôҹԵѳõͧ駵˹ҷǺآ͹¢ͧͷء ʧ繾



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ҧͺآ͹ªش 2

1. ͨԹءԴ㹴ԹŹ ͨԹҷջª 仼Ѻ ռɵͼ
2. ͧҹӨҡӼ öسͧ йӵŪẤ·Ժ

3. Ấ¢ͧǴ öդٳ㹼Եѳ
4. öդٳ㹼Եѳ
5. ·Ấ·繻ª öͧѹẤ·ӹǹ

6. úèش »ͧѹӹǹͨԹɷ
7. ͨԹöͶ֧Եѳèҡת
8. ͨԹö͹ҹԹ
9. ö֧ +75 ͧ öͫ

10. ͨԹ繾ö͹ҹҹ
11. Ấ·繾ɷդٳ㹢 سͧ
12. ÷͹Ըժ Ấ·繾ɷդâ
13. سԷ١ͧ˵Ӥѭͧ÷Դ繾
14. þɢͧҺҧԴö͹ö繾 Ҩж١ (þѧ)

15. ҧС͡ öͧѹõԴҸԵǵ״
16. dzѡ·ѧࡵµռ§آҾҹ

17. ͹纺йҹ 4
18. Ң»ʴ ͹һҹҷӻѹ仢
19. Եѳ÷դ§٧ͨҡâ öö
20. ͹Ѻ㹡 öҪ¤駵ѹ ͧҧء

21. ÷ͺкؿ ͹һا ѵ§繾
22. Եѳöѧҡҧʹ ʴա蹼Դ
23. мѡöػóǡѹ ռ§繾

24. ʴѧè ¡纨ҡԵѳû
25. ع㹢зا

26. ѡҹԹѡʺöͨԹ繾
27. ѡҹا÷դ§٧ѧè÷ͷӧҹ
28. èöͨԹҾǴ
29. ͧͷӤҴͪش öͨԹ㹤

30. ûԹµѺСѹҴ鹼ǴҹŪҾ
31. ŧѹ繤§آ͹
32. ͧͷӤҴʶҹСͺõͧշ੾
33. õǨسͧǹ˹觢ͧäǺ
34. ջѭԴ ҨзҺҤûԺѵҧ? ҡἹäǺ
35. 繵ͧաäǺ㹡Ԩ÷ءҹǡѺ
36. ͺͧѡҹǹӤѭͧäǺ
37. 㹡ᨡÿը繵ͧӵФйӢͧûا

38. ʶҹСͺ÷÷ԴԴԴŧҧ͡ سԵӡ 0 ͧ
39. ͹ѹ繷è㹶ا٭ҡ س 0-3 ͧ
40. ͺ麴ͧҹ (ػó㹡÷) öѹ躴ѹ






Edited by United - 20 May 2013 at 20:32
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